Salvo is the most advanced topical solution available. It allows for very highly concentrated solutions, and contains the most potent topical skin-permeation enhancers commercially-available.
By purchasing bulk powders and using Salvo’s advanced delivery matrix, athletes and bodybuilders can obtain excellent results at a wallet-friendly price.
Passive diffusion through the layers of the dermis creates a time-release effect that allows for sustained blood-levels of the active ingredients, and convenient once-daily dosing.
Increased bioavailability through avoidance of the first-pass effect of hepatic metabolism can be a clear benefit of topical administration – particularly in the cases of active, non-17a-methylated hormones.
The intercellular lipids of the stratum corneum are regarded as the major barrier to the permeation of lipophilic compounds. Salvo contains potent ingredients which modulate this lipid matrix & affect the non-polar permeation-enhancement route. These ingredients include thiazone, which is 3-12x more potent than azone as a permeation-enhancer for lipophilic molecules, and nerolidol, a lipophilic terpene which has been shown to be highly effective at facilitating the delivery of lipophilic molecules. It also includes oleic acid and stearyl methacrylate, fatty-acid derivatives which insert themselves between the hydrocarbon tails of intercellular stratum corneum lipids, and which thus disrupt lipid packing, increase fluidity, and promote diffusion through the external layer of the stratum corneum.
Salvo utilizes a volatile:nonvolatile co-solvent vehicle to create a state of supersaturation, which helps compounds cross the exterior layers of the stratum corneum. As the volatile component evaporates on your skin, the solution becomes more concentrated, and eventually becomes super-saturated, resulting in increased thermodynamic ‘push’, and enhanced penetration.
- Salvo is generally compatible with active ingredients that have LogP values of 1.5-4.0. Salvo’s system is designed for use with lipophilic ingredients, does not affect the polar route of stratum corneum permeation, and thus compounds with lower lipophilicity will not partition adequately into the SC lipids. Compounds with LogP values higher than 4.0 might have such high affinity for those same SC lipids that they accumulate there & don’t reach the lower levels of the epidermis at reasonable concentrations.
- Molecular weight is a good indicator of chemical surface area, which is directly related to diffusion coefficient. As such, compounds with a MW >500 are not expected to work well in this topical system.
- ’Melting point’ is an indicator of solubility in skin lipids. In general, compounds with low melting points are more compatible with topical solutions than compounds with high melting points. -Ionized species will permeate less readily than free acid forms.